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´╗┐Oxidative stress, including the reactive oxygen or nitrogen species generated in the enzymatical oxidationor auto-oxidation of an excess amount of dopamine, is thought to play an important role in dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Dopamine and its metabolites containing 2 hydroxyl residues exert cytotoxicityin dopaminergic neuronal cells, primarily due to the Mont Blanc Pens Uk generation of highly reactive dopamine and DOPA quinones. Dopamine and DOPA quinones may irreversibly alter protein function through the formation of 5-cysteinyl-catechols on the proteins. Furthermore, the quinone formation is Mont Blanc Pen Stockists Perth closely linked to other representative hypotheses such as mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress, and dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, pathogenic effects of the dopamine quinone have recently focused on dopaminergicneuron-specific oxidative stress. In this article, we primarily review recent studies on the pathogenicity of quinone formation, in addition to several neuroprotective approaches against dopaminequinone-induced dysfunction of dopaminergic neurons.  


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