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´╗┐The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in mammals functions as the biological clock controlling circadian rhythms, but the synaptic circuitry of the SCN is largely unexplored. Most SCN neurons use the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and anatomic studies indicate many GABAergic synapses and local axon collaterals; however, physiological evidence for synaptic communication among SCN neurons is indirect. We have used three approaches to investigate local circuitry in the SCN in acute hypothalamic slices from rat. First, tetrodotoxin was used to block action-potential-dependent synaptic release, which resulted in a decrease in the frequency of spontaneous synaptic currents in SCN neurons, suggesting that spontaneously active neurons in the slice connect synaptically to SCN neurons. Postsynaptic currents in SCN neurons Mont Blanc Refills Rollerball were also evoked by the selective stimulation of other SCN neurons with glutamate, which avoids direct activation of axons that might originate outside the SCN. Two different methods of glutamate microapplication (i.e., pressure ejection and ultraviolet photolysis of caged glutamate) indicated that SCN neurons receive GABAA-receptor-mediated synaptic input from other SCN neurons. In contrast, glutamate-receptor-mediated synaptic connections between SCN neurons were not detected. The GABAergic synapses that comprise the network described here could conceivably be a substrate for the synchronization and amplification of the circadian rhythm of SCN firing. Alternatively, this circuitry might mediate other aspects of clock function such as the integration of environmental and physiological Mont Blanc Meisterstuck Rollerball Pen information.  


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